Dixie Harms, DNP - Figure 6
Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus
Figure 6 shows the risk factors for development of diabetes mellitus in people with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 listed in the ADA’s Clinical Practice Recommendations 2014. These begin with people who are more physically inactive, people who have first degree relatives with diabetes, and members of certain ethnic subpopulations who are at higher risk for developing diabetes, such as African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders. The ethnic subpopulation risk includes people who immigrate to the United States from areas such as China and India where the “Western diet” is less prevalent and who then tend to be at high risk for developing diabetes once they start living in the United States.
Women who have given birth to babies that weighed >9 pounds or were diagnosed with gestational diabetes are at higher risk for developing diabetes later on in life.
People with hypertension, HDL-cholesterol <35 mg/dL, or triglycerides >250 mg/dL are usually at risk for developing diabetes or prediabetes. Also at increased risk will be women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Finally people with HbA1C levels ≥5.7%, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glucose are at increased risk, as are those who are severely obese or have conditions associated with insulin resistance such as severe obesity or acanthosis nigricans (the brownish discoloration found in skin folds around the neck or in the axilla, groin, or other fat folds), or who have a history of cardiovascular disease. Harms D. J Nurse Pract. 2014; 00:00 – 00.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Suppl 1):S14-S80.